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New Data & TERS Probe Development

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Bruker Posted: Wed, Nov 14 2012 5:23 PM

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New Data & TERS Probe Development

November 2012

ters probe
Raman spectroscopy combines high spectral resolution with the ability to measure vibrational state transitions in nonpolar chemical bonds, enabling it to measure stress in elemental crystals such as silicon. With the continued move toward smaller technology nodes per the ITRS roadmap, nanometer spatial resolution is required for such a measurement to be relevant. TERS has received attention as a technique that can provide this information. At Bruker, we have partnered with leading researchers to perform silicon stress measurements on device structures. The graph in Figure 1 shows the increased signal obtained from stressed silicon obtained upon approaching the TERS active probe. This data was generated with an Innova-IRIS AFM coupled to a Renishaw inVia Raman system.

Recently, graphene has received a lot of attention. Its exotic electronic structure gives rise to high electron mobility and electrical properties that make it intriguing for device and sensor applications, as well as for fundamental materials studies. AFM can be an ideal probe of its properties, complementing the electronic structure information available from (correlated) Raman spectroscopy. The power of such correlated AFM-Raman studies is seen below, where the same individual graphene flake is interrogated with Raman spectroscopy as well as with Bruker's exclusive PeakForce QNM® and PeakForce KPFM™ modes.

A well-defined graphene layer structure is critical for most envisaged graphene applications. Figure 2 (a) shows how Raman spectroscopy provides an unambiguous signature of graphene layer structure, while the correlated AFM topography map in Figure 2(b) provides associated layer boundaries with much higher spatial resolution. Many graphene growth schemes lead to high graphene defect densities with undesirable consequences, making it critical to locate and characterize defects and measure their impact on properties. In the example shown here, the electronic signature of increased defect density at one edge of the single layer region seen in Figure 2(c) is correlated with a detailed nanoscale topographic and nanomechanical investigation of the associated graphene fragmentation seen in Figure 2(d). In addition, the PeakForce KPFM image shown in Figure 2(e) provides a high spatial resolution image of the graphene workfunction, showing the influence of graphene layer structure as well as additional workfunction variations suggesting the presence of trapped charges in the substrate.

Please CLICK HERE to see our recent webinar for more information and many more data examples from our AFM-Raman systems.
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